October / November 1976
From “Pharmacology and the Brain”: Since frail times, medication dangle been dilapidated to restore mental health or explore the thoughts. It used to be acknowledged that the Homeric doctor Polydama presented Menelaos and Helen with “a drug against sorrow and arouse, a drug to live on despair” on their manner home to Troy. The selection of thoughts-bending medication available as of late is countless. Some dangle altered the path of medical practice; others dangle modified the fabric of our society. Many dangle better specificity of motion and fewer aspect results than ever earlier than. The enchancment of such medication has been paralleled by our elevated recordsdata of how medication work on the molecular level to switch behavior. On this regard, indubitably one of the most crucial fruitful research approaches has piquant the look of how nerve cells be in contact with diverse cells in the physique, and how assorted medication may per chance moreover alter this verbal replace.
Could presumably per chance / June 1987
From “Designing Computers That Deem the Method We Live”: Neuroscientists dangle come to have that the architecture of the brain is central to its fair. Particular particular person neurons aren’t dapper by themselves, but once they’re connected to every diverse they became somewhat clever. The relate is, no person is aware of how they attain it. It isn’t that neurons are fast: in sending their electrochemical messages to diverse neurons, they’re 100,000 times slower than a conventional computer switch. But what our brains lack in tempo they compose up in“wetware,” as it is on occasion called. The brain contains from 10 billion to a thousand billion neurons, every of which may per chance moreover be connected to wherever from 1,000 to 100,000 others. If this big salvage of interconnected neurons forms the big collective conspiracy we name our minds, per chance a big interconnected salvage of mechanical switches can compose a machine that thinks.
July / August 2014
This narrative used to be portion of our September 2021 relate
From “Cracking the Brain’s Codes”: One fair such questions referring to the brain’s schemes for encoding recordsdata dangle proved so hard to crack is that the human brain is so immensely complicated, encompassing 86 billion neurons linked by one thing on the command of a quadrillion synaptic connections … It is miles moreover price noting that what neuroengineers strive to attain is a cramped savor eavesdropping—tapping into the brain’s salvage inner communications … Some of that eavesdropping may per chance moreover misinform us. Every neural code we are able to crack will portray us one thing about how the brain operates, but no longer every code we crack is one thing the brain itself makes exclaim use of. Some of them may per chance moreover be … unintended tics that, even in the occasion that they point to precious for engineering and medical capabilities, would be diversions on the avenue to a cumbersome determining of the brain.